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Ukushoda kokulala kuyithinta kanjani ingqondo nobuntu bengane yakho

Ukushoda kokulala kuyithinta kanjani ingqondo nobuntu bengane yakho. Ucwaningo lwakamuva lubonise ukuthi uma izingane “ezivamile” zicelwa ukuba zifinyeze ukulala kwazo ngenjongo yokuhlola, ziba nemiphumela emibi, futhi amakhono azo okufunda nawokunaka asengozini kakhulu.

Umcwaningi oholayo ophathelene nesimo sengqondo sezinsana nezingane ezincane wake wathi ngokudangala, “Lapho ngikhulisa ingane yami yokuqala, ngangikholelwa izinkolelo-mbono zokuziphatha ezithi lokho engikwenzayo njengomzali kuyalolonga ubuntu bomntanami. Ngengane yami yesibili, ngase ngiwuchwepheshe wezakhi zofuzo futhi ngikholelwa ukuthi ingane izalwa inezici ezidluliselwa ngofuzo nokuthi ithonya lendawo ezungezile lincane kakhulu. Bengingayazi nhlobo ingane yami yesithathu...”

Lokhu kuhlaziywa, yiqiniso, kwakuyihaba, kodwa kubonisa ukufuna okuqhubekayo kwabazali nososayensi ukuphendula lo mbuzo: yini enquma ubuntu nezici zomuntu siqu zengane?

Umbuzo wofuzo (“Wathola amahloni emndenini kababa wakhe”) ngokumelene nendawo (“Ukube unina ubenesandla esiqinile kuye, ubeyoba ezolile”) usekela imizamo yabazali yokuqonda ububanzi bethonya abanalo ekubumbeni ingane.

Ucwaningo lwakamuva lukhomba isithombe esiyinkimbinkimbi: ithonya lofuzo nendawo ezungezile enganeni. Ubufakazi obuningi bubonisa ukuthi umntwana uzalwa enezakhi zofuzo ezingagcini nje ngokunquma indlela abukeka ngayo, umbala wamehlo akhe, namathuba okuba aphathwe yizifo ezihlukahlukene kodwa futhi ezithonya ngokuphawulekayo izici zobuntu azozihlakulela.

Izinga lomsebenzi ongokomzimba, amahloni noma ukuhlalisana kwabantu, ukuvuleleka ezimweni ezintsha, nokukhathazeka kuphakathi kwezici ezihlobene nokuthambekela kofuzo izingane ezingena ngazo emhlabeni. Abazali abaningi bathola ukuthi ingane yabo inezici ezingathandeki kubo—ikakhulukazi uma bezikhumbuza izimfanelo abangazithandi ngabazali bazo, abashade nabo, noma bona ngokwabo.

Abazali bavame ukuzama ukulwa nalezi zici, kodwa ngokuvamile bathola ukuthi impi ehlulekayo.

Kubonakala sengathi okuguquguqukayo okubaluleke kakhulu okuthonya izinga lobuhlobo phakathi kwabazali nezingane “ukulunga kokufaneleka” phakathi kwezici zengane nalokho okulindelwe abazali.

Ngokwesibonelo, umntwana okhuthele angase athandwe ubaba owazisayo futhi azibonele nalesi sici kodwa omane abekezelelwe ubaba olindele ingane ezolile.

Ngakolunye uhlangothi, ubaba wokuqala ingane ethule, ezolile ingase ibhekwe njengocindezelekile noma engaphili, kuyilapho ubaba wesibili eyibona iphelele.

Ukungezwani phakathi kwezinto ezilindelwe abazali kanye nezici zengane kungase kubangele ukukhungatheka nokucindezeleka ebuhlotsheni, ikakhulukazi uma abazali bezama “ukulungisa” ingane ukuze yenze lokho abakulindele.

® Ubudlelwano Phakathi Kwesimo Senhliziyo Nokulala

Wonke umzali uyasazi isimo lapho umntanakhe ebonisa ngokuziphatha kwakhe ukuthi “usedlulile isikhathi sokulala.”

Lapho ososayensi becela abazali ukuba bachaze lesi simo, abanye bathi umntwana uyazola, abonakale eyozela, alale yodwa, noma acele ukuyolala ngokuqondile noma ngokungaqondile. Abanye abazali bathi ingane yabo ekulesi simo “igibela izindonga,” “iwusana olukhalayo,” “iyathuthumela futhi ayijabuli ngayo yonke into,” “ayisabeli kulokho etshelwayo,” noma “imane yenza izinto ezicasulayo.”

Ngokusobala, izingane ezincane zisabela ngezindlela ezihluke kakhulu ekukhathaleni.

Isimo sokukhathala asivezwa ngempela ngokuncipha komsebenzi kanye nokozela okusobala.

Ngezinye izikhathi izimpawu zingase zibe ngokuphambene.

Okunye kokuziphatha okujwayelekile “okubi” kwengane ekhathele kuyahambisana namaphethini ajwayelekile akhombisa ukuphazamiseka kokuziphatha.

Ubufakazi obuningi bukhomba ukuhlobana okunamandla phakathi kokulala nokuthuthuka kwezici zobuntu bengane.

Ucwaningo luye lwabonisa ukuthi ingane ehlushwa ukuphazamiseka kokulala (ubunzima bokulala, isibonelo, noma ukuvuka okuningi ebusuku) ivame ukuba "nzima kakhulu" kwezinye izizinda zokuziphatha.

Ocwaningweni olwenziwa kuma-laboratories amaningana wokulala, ososayensi baqhathanisa iqembu lezingane ezinezinyanga eziyisishiyagalolunye kuya kwezingamashumi amabili nane abazali bazo ababeze ukuzobonisana ngezinkinga zokulala zezingane zabo neqembu elilawulayo lezingane ezingenalo ukuphazamiseka kokulala - akumangalisi, abakuthola kuwumehluko omkhulu ezicini omama ababethi zibangelwa izingane.

Omama bagcwalise uhlu lwemibuzo lokuziphatha, okuwuhlobo lokuhlola “ubuntu” bezingane ezincane.

Omama balinganisela izinga labo lokuvumelana ngemisho enjengokuthi “Ingane ivuma ukugqokiswa futhi ikhumulwe ngaphandle kokubhikisha,” “Ingane isabela ngokuqinile (iklabalase, iklabalase) lapho ikhungathekile,” nethi “Ingane ihlezi ithule lapho ilindele ukudla.”

Ngokuvamile, omama bezingane ezinezinkinga zokulala bazichaze njengabadinga kakhulu, abakhonondayo, abacasulayo, abazweli ngendlela engafanele ezintweni ezihlukahlukene, futhi kunzima ukuzivumelanisa nezimo ezihlukahlukene, uma kuqhathaniswa nezingane ezingenazo izinkinga zokulala.

Esinye sezici ezikalwa kuhlu lwemibuzo yesimo sezulu yizinga lokuzwela noma ukusabela kwengane ezinhlobonhlobo zezinzwa (umsindo, izinga lokushisa, ukunambitha, iphunga).

Ezinye izingane zizwela kakhulu kunoma yiluphi uhlobo lwezinzwa ezishukumisayo, kanti ezinye zizwela kuphela uhlobo oluthile lokuzwa—ngokwesibonelo, lezo ezihoxayo ekuthinteni isikhumba.

Uhlu olubanzi lwezingane aluphenduli ngendlela evelele ekushukunyisweni kwezinzwa.

Enye yemibono umcwaningi uWilliam Carey ayihlola ngo-1974 yayiwukuthi izingane ezinenkinga yokungezwani nezinzwa zivame ukuba nezinkinga zokulala.

Okutholwe nguCarey kwayisekela inkolelo-mbono, futhi wathi ukuzwela okuphakeme kokushukumisa izinzwa kuwufuzo.

Ukuze alale, umntwana kufanele azihlukanise nemvelo yangaphandle futhi ayeke ukusabela kubantu, umsindo, ukukhanya, nezinga lokushisa, futhi ahlukane nezimpawu zangaphakathi, njengobuhlungu, ukungakhululeki, nendlala. Leli khono lokuzihlukanisa libaluleke kakhulu ekugcineni ubuthongo obungaphazanyiswa kanye nokuvimbela ukuphaphama ngenxa yezisusa ezihlukahlukene.

Umntwana ozwela kusukela ekuzalweni kuya kunoma yisiphi isikhuthazo sangaphakathi noma sangaphandle uzoba nenkinga yokuzihlukanisa nezinto ezithinta imvelo, okuzophazamisa ikhono lakhe lokuphumula nokulala kalula futhi kuzomenza aphaphame kalula futhi njalo phakathi nobusuku.

Lokhu kuhlobana phakathi kokulala nokuziphatha kuyaqhubeka kuyo yonke iminyaka yobuntwana yakamuva.

Ucwaningo oluhlole izingane ezifunda isikole zithole ukuhlobana phakathi kokuphazamiseka kokulala nezinkinga zokuziphatha kanye nokuzivumelanisa nezimo okuvamile.

Empeleni, ukuphazamiseka kokulala kusebenza njengesilinganiso esibucayi sezinkinga ezijwayelekile zokuzivumelanisa nezimo phakathi kwezingane nabantu abadala.

Ukuphazamiseka kokulala kuwuphawu oluvelele lokucindezeleka nokukhathazeka, ukucindezeleka, nezinkinga zokuzivumelanisa nezimo. Izinkinga zokulala zande kakhulu ekuziphatheni okuthile noma ekuphazamisekeni kwemizwelo kangangokuthi ziye zafakwa ezimisweni zokuxilonga.

Esinye isici esiqinisa ukuxilongwa kwezinkinga zokukhathazeka enganeni, isibonelo, ukuba khona kokuphazamiseka kokulala.

Ukuhlobana okuseduze phakathi kokuphazamiseka kokulala nezinkinga zokuziphatha ezinganeni kungachazwa ngezindlela eziningi.

Mhlawumbe ingane ezalwa inokuthambekela ekuziphatheni okuyinkinga iba nezinkinga zokulala, ngenxa yalokho. Ngesikhathi esifanayo, kunengqondo ukukholelwa ukuthi izinkinga ezinkulu zokulala zizoholela ekungalali ngokwanele noma ukungalali ngokwanele, okungase kubangele ingane ukuba yethuke, iphelelwe isineke, futhi kube nzima ukuyiphatha.

Ukwengeza, isizathu sesithathu, esifana namaphethini okukhulisa izingane angasebenzisani, singase sicasule noma sibhebhethekise zombili izinkinga zokuziphatha kanye nobunzima bokulala.

Ezikhungweni zokwelapha, ososayensi bavame ukuhlangana nezinsana noma izingane ezincane abazali bazo abazichaza njengezikhuthele ngokweqile.

Abazali basebenzisa leli gama ngokunganaki, kodwa ochwepheshe balisebenzisela ukuxilonga isimo—igama lochwepheshe elithi ukushoda kokuqaphela—okuvela ezinganeni ezindala kuphela.

Lezi zingane zichazwa njengezikhuthele futhi ezingaphumuli futhi kuthiwa zifuna ukunakwa futhi zifuna izisusa njalo.

Ngokuvamile abazali bahlobanisa ubunzima bokulala kwengane yabo nokungaphumuli kwayo okuphapheme. Ngezikhathi ezithile umzali uthi, “Lo mfana unenjini ye-turbo futhi akakwazi ukuyivala ngaphambi kokulala,” noma “Ufana nonogwaja Onika Amandla; ulokhu ehamba futhi ehamba.”

Nakuba ukushuba ngokweqile kutholwa eminyakeni yakamuva, kunobufakazi bokuthi iningi lezingane ezikhuthele kakhulu lalingasebenzi ngokweqile, izingane ezingaphumuli, ezinobuntu obunzima.

Futhi, sibhekene nombuzo wenkukhu noma weqanda: ingabe lezi zingane azikwazi ukulala njengezingane “ezivamile” ngenxa yokuthi zimatasa ngokungavamile, noma ingabe inkinga yazo yokulala idala “ukungasebenzi kahle” kwazo?

Ezimweni eziningi ukuphazamiseka kokulala kubonakala kuholela emaphethini okuziphatha "oku-hyperactive", nakuba kungekho ucwaningo oluqinisekise ngokuqondile leli qiniso.

Ubufakazi obuningi bubonisa ukuthi ukungalali kungase kubangele ukuziphatha okufana nokwengane ekhuthele ngokweqile.

Ngokombono onembile sonke singakhumbula izindlela esizisebenzisayo ukuze sihlale siphapheme lapho sikhathele.

Lezi zindlela zihlanganisa ukwandisa umsebenzi wethu, ukudlidliza, ukudlala ngezandla noma imisipha yethu yobuso, namasu afanayo.

Le phethini iphikisana nokulindela ukuthi ingane ekhathele izokhululeka futhi yehlise ijubane.

Izincwadi zemitholampilo zibhale phansi izimo ezithile lapho izinkinga ezinkulu zokulala zitholakale ziholela emaphethini okuziphatha "okungasebenzi kahle" futhi kamuva ekuxilongweni nasekulashweni okungalungile.

Kubaluleke kakhulu ukuhlola ukuthi kungenzeka yini ukuthi isifo sokulala siwumthombo hhayi umphumela “wokungalawuleki.”

Uma kwenzeka kuba nokuphazamiseka kokulala, kufanele kuphathwe ngaphambi kokwelapha ukuphazamiseka okubangelwa yilokhu.

Kwezinye izimo ukwelapha ukuphazamiseka kokulala kungase kugweme ingane ekutholeni imithi engadingekile njenge-Ritalin, okuyindlela enqunyiwe yokusabela ngamakhemikhali ezinkingeni zokuziphatha zezingane.

Ukuchazwa okuyiphutha kokuziphatha kwengane kungase futhi kubangele lapho isabela obishini lokulala ngokukhathala okukhulu, ukungabi nandaba, nokungabi nasithakazelo endaweni ezungezile. Le phethini ingase ihunyushwe ngokuthi ukucindezeleka, futhi ubunzima bokulala bungabonakala njengomphumela waleso simo.

Njengoba izincwadi zochwepheshe zembula, ukuxilongwa okuyiphutha okunjalo kungaphumela ekuhlulekeni kokubona nokwelapha isifo esiyinhloko sokulala, kanye nokwelashwa okuyiphutha kokucindezeleka.

Ucwaningo lwezehlakalo luye lwabonisa ukuthi lapho inkinga itholakala ngendlela efanele njengesifo esiyinhloko sokulala futhi iphathwa ngendlela efanele, kukhona ukuthuthukiswa okufanayo kokulala nokunyamalala kwezimpawu "zokucindezeleka".

® Ukuthuthukiswa Kobuhlakani

Ukuhlola ubuhlakani ebuntwaneni kuwumsebenzi oyinkimbinkimbi kakhulu.

Ukuhlola okusetshenziselwa izinsana ukuze kuhlolwe amakhono engqondo angaphambi kwesikhathi angase athathwe njengezingxenye zobuhlakani ngokuvamile kwehlulekile ukubikezela ubuhlakani noma amakhono okuqonda kanye nezimpumelelo eminyakeni yakamuva.

Ucwaningo mayelana nobudlelwano phakathi kokulala nokuthuthukiswa kwengqondo luye lwaphazanyiswa amandla ethu alinganiselwe okuhlola ukuhlakanipha kwezingane.

Imizamo yokutadisha lolu daba yehlulekile ukunikeza isithombe esicacile salesi simo, futhi sidinga ukucela izifundo ezengeziwe ngezingane ezindala nakubantu abadala ukuze zisisize sicabangele lolu daba ngendlela ehlelekile.

Ososayensi abavela eNyuvesi yase-Connecticut eqenjini lika-Evelyn Thoman, eliye lanikela kakhulu emkhakheni wocwaningo lokulala kwezinsana, bahlole lo mbuzo. Balandela ukulala kwezingane ezisanda kuzalwa phakathi nezinsuku zabo ezimbili zokuqala zokuphila futhi bahlola ukukhula kwazo lapho zinezinyanga eziyisithupha ubudala.

Imishini ekhethekile yokuqopha yayibhala phansi ukulala kwezingane ezindlini zasesibhedlela ngemva kokuzalwa.

Ososayensi babe sebehlola ingqondo, amandla, namandla okuqonda ezingane lapho zinezinyanga eziyisithupha ubudala, besebenzisa i-Bayley Test.

Bathola ukuhlobana phakathi kwezinyathelo zokulala zezingane ezisanda kuzalwa ngosuku lwazo lokuqala lokuphila kanye nokukhula kwazo ezinyangeni eziyisithupha kamuva.

Abanye ososayensi bathola ukuhlobana phakathi kokuphazamiseka kokulala kwasebuntwaneni, ikakhulukazi lezo ezibangelwa izinkinga zokuphefumula, kanye nokushoda okungaba khona ekuthuthukisweni kobuhlakani nempumelelo ezifundweni kamuva.

Nokho, ezinye izifundo azitholanga ukuhlobana okuqondakalayo phakathi kokulala nokusebenza kwengqondo kamuva.

Ucwaningo olwenziwa ezinganeni ezindala nakubantu abadala lubonise ukuthi ukuphazamiseka kokulala noma ukungalali ngokwanele kuphazamisa ngokuyinhloko amakhono okuqonda ahlobene nokunaka nokugxilisa ingqondo.

Okusho ukuthi ikhono lokugxila ekushukumiseni okuthile isikhathi eside liyawohloka.

Abantu abangalali ngokwanele basabela kancane futhi benze amaphutha engeziwe emisebenzini efuna ukunakwa nokugxilisa ingqondo okuqhubekayo. Nakuba umbuzo wokulala nokunaka ungazange ufundwe ngokuqondile ezinganeni, okunye ukusekelwa kokuhlobana kwazo kuvela ezindleleni ezingaqondile.

Isibonelo, omama bachaza izingane zabo (ezineminyaka eyisishiyagalolunye kuya kwezinyanga ezingamashumi amabili nane) ezinenkinga yokulala ngokuthi zinenkinga yokugxila ekudlaleni noma emsebenzini othile isikhathi eside, futhi ziphazanyiswa kalula ezinye izisusa.

Kolunye ucwaningo lwamuva, ososayensi bokulala bahlole ukuhlobana phakathi kwendlela yokulala nekhono lokufunda, ukugxilisa ingqondo, nokunaka kwezingane ezisafunda isikole.

Izindlela zokulala zezingane zazihlolwa ngendlela efanele kusetshenziswa amawashi okulala, futhi imisebenzi yazo yokufunda yahlolwa ngokuhlolwa kwekhompyutha.

Ngokufanayo nemiphumela yocwaningo lwabantu abadala, bathole ukuthi izingane ezizinga labo lokulala eliwohlokayo (njengoba kuboniswa ukuvuka okuningi noma okude ebuthongweni phakathi nobusuku) nazo zazinciphise amakhono okunaka.

Lokhu okutholakele kusekela umbono wokuthi le misebenzi ebalulekile yokufunda nokuphumelela kwezemfundo ithintwa kabi ukuphazamiseka kokulala phakathi kwezingane.

Ngaphezu kwalokho, ucwaningo lwamuva luye lwabonisa ukuthi uma izingane “ezivamile” zicelwa ukuba zifinyeze ubuthongo bazo ngenjongo yokuhlola, ziba nemiphumela emibi, futhi amakhono azo okufunda nokunaka asengozini enkulu.

Ngokwesisekelo salokho esikufundile mayelana nezingane ezindala kanye nabantu abadala kanye nasolwazini olulinganiselwe lwezinsana, kuyafaneleka ukuphetha ngokuthi amakhono obuhlakani ezinsana abekelwa inselele ukuphazamiseka noma ukungalali ngokwanele.

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